## 4.7 Carbon capture and storage (CCS)

This module introduces the Carbon Capture and Storage (**CCS**) in the model. For CCS, supply costs of injections and sequestration reflect sites availability at the regional level, as well as energy penalties, capture and leakage rates. CCS can be used with Gas, Coal, and biomass power plants in the model and competes with traditional fuel power plants for a sufficiently high carbon price signal.

The quantity of carbon captured, \(Q_{CCS}\), is computed from all CCS technologies according to a specific capture rate:

\[ Q_{CCS} = \sum_{f,j} Q_{f,j}(t,n) \times ccs\_capture\_rate_f \]

The total amount of storage needed \(M_{CCS}(t,n)\) is then computed cumulatively as

\[ M_{CCS}(t,n) = \sum_{t'<t} \Delta_{t'} \times Q_{CCS}(t',n). \]

The unit costs for CCS transportation and storage \(C_{CCS}(n,t)\) are then a convex function of the cumulative sequestrated emissions, where the parameters are chosen to calibrate costs and capacity of storage to the available estimates, notably (IPCC 2005), who estimate a total storage capacity of between 1678 and 11100 GtCO2.

\[ C_{CCS}(n,t) = a_{CCS}(n) e^{\alpha_{CCS}(n) \times M_{CCS}(t,n)^{\beta_{CCS}(n)}} \]

and the total cost for the CCS is then computed as

\[ C_{e}(n,t) = C_{CCS}(n,t) \times Q_{e}(n,t), \forall e \in \{CCS\} \]

### References

IPCC. 2005. *IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change*. Edited by Bert Metz, Ogunlade Davidson, HC De Coninck, Manuela Loos, and LA Meyer. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.